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宋朝人是如何喝茶玩茶的?

時間:2019-06-10 15:17:41  來源:  作者:
    “茶興于唐,而盛于宋。”宋代可謂是中國茶文化的黃金時代。

  正如宋代王安石所說,“夫茶之為民用,等于米鹽。”茶成為風靡全國的國飲,便是從宋代開始的。追求精細生活的宋人,更是將這一片葉子發展到了登峰造極的程度。

  從精雕細琢的團茶,到別出心裁的“點茶”、出神入化的“分茶”……宋人將茶玩出了五花八門的新高度,使之成為“盛世之清尚”。

  一片茶葉究竟能玩出什么花樣?約千年前的茶技為何至今仍難以超越?只要走進中國茶葉博物館,你就能瞬間穿越千年時光,重回大宋,親自體驗一場宋代茶文化美學。

  宋人制茶:從御品龍鳳團茶到民間散茶 整個流程有“督茶官”嚴格把控

  宋人“玩茶”還要從高大上的宋代制茶法講起。

  從采茶開始,制茶的整個流程都有專門的“督茶官”嚴格把控。

  當時,“茶工”凌晨五更就要入山采茶,為了茶葉潔凈新鮮,還要新汲一大罐水,掛在胸前,邊采茶,邊把茶葉投進罐中,而太陽一出現便要停工。采茶下山,新鮮茶葉還要精挑細選,并將小芽、中芽、紫芽、百合、烏蒂等部位一一區分開。

  優質茶芽還要經過多道工序,以去掉苦澀物質。再用模具制餅,穿串烘干,就成了唐宋風行的團茶。

  團茶,不僅是團餅狀,還有海棠花、月兔等各式各樣的形狀。印有龍鳳圖樣的“龍鳳團茶”更是為人盛贊的宮廷御用品。對于宋朝的王公將相而言,是比黃金更難得的賞賜。盡管千年前的“龍鳳團茶”已煙消玉隕,但展覽中細致的線描圖和復制實物足以窺見它們的精貴。

  精致而奢華的團茶大多是皇家貴族的玩法,在宋代,民間則流行散茶。上承唐代蒸青餅茶制法,下啟元代散茶形式,兩宋時期的茶葉制作開始呈現多樣化的趨勢。

  宋人烹飲茶:不僅斗茶還喜歡寫詩作畫 茶藝與書法彈琴并舉

  茶葉準備好了,就要開始烹飲了。追求生活美學的宋人,連飲茶也充滿藝術范兒:上承唐代精致的煎茶法,再到工藝復雜又妙趣橫生的點茶法,都成為當時飲茶的主流方式。

  煎茶法需先將茶餅碾成茶末,再放入茶銚中加水燒制,并根據喜好,加入調味品。比如唐代,流行加鹽。

  而點茶法,則要將研磨好的茶末,事先在茶盞中以少量開水調成均勻的茶膏,之后一邊注入開水,一邊用茶匙或茶筅慢慢攪動。這一步叫“擊拂”,正是點茶的關鍵,非常考驗茶技。點茶完畢,如果直接喝下去,未免又浪費了之前那么多功夫。于是,又出現了“斗茶”這項文人墨客樂此不疲的娛樂。

  大致在北宋末年,點茶法進一步發揚光大,形成了又一種高超技藝——分茶。分茶,又叫“茶丹青”,顧名思義,指使茶湯表面幻化出各種文字乃至花草蟲魚的圖案。據記載,宋代有位叫“福全”的和尚便是分茶高手——每一盞中可生成一句詩,四盞連點,可成一首絕句。

  宋代皇室和士大夫的參與,更是將點茶藝術推至登峰造極之境。

  這種神乎其技的茶藝表演在宋代備受推崇,甚至與書法、彈琴等技藝并舉。

  宋人的茶具:黑釉一時成為爆款 湯瓶也被捧紅

  點茶法的流行也使宋人崇尚一套獨具審美的茶具。點茶時,茶面泛出的湯花呈白色,與建盞的黑釉正好相互映襯,因而,宋人點茶最愛用建盞,黑釉一時成為爆款。

  展覽中,可見各種宋代茶碗與茶盞,大多以黑釉為主基調。點茶“捧紅”的不僅是黑釉盞,還有另外一個關鍵角色——湯瓶,這對親密搭檔完美演繹了點茶藝術。為玩轉點茶,宋人對湯瓶作了特別設計:流口變得曲長,壺嘴的出水口圓而小,使注水點茶,收放自如,并且水流呈拋物線,極具線條美。

  宋人偏愛以斗笠盞飲茶,盞身大多呈45度斜角,像一個倒扣斗笠,大小以一只手能握住為宜。(記者 張蓉 通訊員 朱陽) 來源: 錢江晚報

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